Politics is about ideas. This chapter addresses the question of how congruent the policy ideas of party leaderships and candidates are. party-candidates’ congruence. The authors highlight a paradox faced by political parties. These may at the same time strive to maximise their vote share but also to ensure some kind of policy coherence within their party. The chapter stresses this potential antagonism between having “popular candidates” on the list, and party soldiers, who would be ideologically congruent with their party’s ideas. How to reconcile these two different principles that candidates as agents have to please? The study examines policy congruence from the parties’ perspective by scrutinising selection criteria for candidates, relying on the Belgian Candidates Survey and a party leadership survey.
The paper analyses almost fifteen years of Croatian parliamentary debates and identifies a discourse of war legacies. Using the latest advancements in natural language processing, the paper utilizes models based on latent semantic analysis and discusses how politicians talk about war in terms of common narratives and shared frameworks. Using a complex vector representation of war-related concepts, the paper specifically focuses on their framing in the context of right-wing authoritarianism. The results show a negative trend of pushing the most frequent war-related concepts to more extreme framing as a potential reflection of their political abuse and ongoing mythologization.